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Home > Cooking Tips > Tips about various ingredients > F
F - Tips about various ingredients

[ Fenugreek | Fish Odors | FlourFrench Fries | Frozen Foods | Fruit ]

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)

  • Fenugreek: 1 pound = 4 cups
  • 1 Tablespoon = <1/3 ounce

Fish OdorFish Odors

  • Rub your hands with salt and lemon juice to remove fish odors.


  • Generally speaking, flour made from hard winter wheat contains 13% to 15% protein (gluten).
  • Bread flour is made from hard wheat that produces dough that is elastic and can expand well.
  • Flour made from wheat grown in the hot months of summer is soft wheat with only 4% to 9% gluten.
  • Cake and pastry flour is made with fine textured soft wheat, producing tender dough with little stretch for products needing a crumbly texture.
  • All purpose flour is a mixture of the two types, with about 11-12% gluten.

French Fries

  • French FriesDon`t overfill the fry basket. This lowers the oil temperature quickly, and will produce limp fries and they will tend to stick together.
  • Follow directions - cook the fries at the recommended temperature for the recommended time.
  • Old oil, dirty oil or oil that is too hot will produce fries that will not be an appetizing golden brown.
  • Limp fries also result from too low a temperature, undercooking, and salting too soon. Wait a minute or so after they are cooked before salting them.

Frozen Foods

  • Food safety experts recommend thawing foods in the refrigerator or the microwave oven, or putting the package in a water-tight plastic bag submerged in cold water and changing the water every 30 minutes. Gradual defrosting overnight in the refrigerator is best because it helps maintain quality.
  • When microwaving, follow package directions. Leave about 2 inches (about 5 centimeters) between the food and the inside surface of the microwave to allow heat to circulate. Smaller items will defrost more evenly than larger pieces of food. Foods defrosted in the microwave oven should be cooked immediately after thawing.
  • Do not thaw meat, poultry and fish products on the counter or in the sink without cold water; bacteria can multiply rapidly at room temperature.


  • FruitsMelons, citrus fruits and pineapple do not store starch that can be converted to sugar, as most fruits do. This means they will not get sweeter after they are picked, but they will improve in texture.
  • Very few fruits contain fat: avocados, olives and nuts are the only ones with significant amounts.
  • Avocados are about 22% fat, with the average medium size avocado containing 300 calories and 30 grams of fat.
  • One cup of unsweetened shredded coconut has 26 grams fat and 283 calories.
    The average banana contains 0.6 grams fat.
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