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Home > Spice Farming > Black Pepper
Black Pepper Spice Farming
Black PepperClimatic Requirements
Black pepper grows successfully between 200 North and 200 South of equator and from sea level to 1500 MSL. It is a plant of humid tropics, requiring 2000-3000 mm of rainfall, tropical temperature and high relative humidity with little variation in day length throughout the year. Black pepper does not tolerate excessive heat and dryness.

Total rainfall and its distribution play an important role in black pepper cultivation and productivity. An annual rainfall of 2000 mm with uniform distribution is ideal. Rainfall of 70 mm received in 20 days during May-June is sufficient for triggering off flushing and flowering processes in the plant. But once the process is set off there should be continuous shower until fruit ripening. Any dry spell even for a few day, within this critical period of 16 weeks (flowering to fruit ripening) will result in low yield.

The crop tolerates temperature between 10-40 o C. The ideal temperature is 23-32 o C with an average of 28 degree c. Optimum soil temperature for root growth is 26-28 o C.

Black pepper is a day neutral plant. Black pepper vines exposed to direct solar radiation develop physiological disorders even under favourable soil moisture conditions. Black pepper vines kept under shade (7% incident light) remain green and healthy whereas those exposed to sunlight turn yellow and develop necrotic patches during summer. Fifty percent shade boosts the growth of black pepper cuttings in the nursery.

Nursery Maintainence
Collection of parental material for starting a nursery should be from an area free from the incidence of diseases, Phytophthora foot rot and nematodes. The vines selected should be 5-10 year old and high yielder.
The nursery should be kept hygienic.
Give periodical (once in 15 days) sprays with 1.0% Bordeaux mixture.
Drench the trenches also with 0.2% copper oxychloride at least twice during the south-west monsoons, the first in May-June and the second in August-September.
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